Thursday, April 12, 2007

WHAT IS C-PEPTIDE?

Clinical studies show that C-peptide administration in type 1 diabetes patients, who lack the peptide, results in amelioration of diabetes-induced renal and nerve dysfunction.
Patients with type 1 diabetes, who continue to maintain a small endogenous beta cell activity, are less prone to develop long-term complications and have fewer episodes of hypoglycemia than those who become totally C-peptide deficient.
This particular Peptide is a part of Insulin make-up as is Amylin. Having only two parts of this composition made available in exogenous form (Insulin by way of Humalog and Novolog and Amylin by way of Symlin), we are most in need of the third which is C-Peptide.
In an article reported in Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 278: E759-E768, 2000;0193-1849/00, Vol. 278, Issue 5, E759-E768, May 2000
Role of C-peptide in human physiology

John Wahren1, Karin Ekberg1, Jan Johansson2, Mikael Henriksson2, Aladdin Pramanik2, Bo-Lennart Johansson1, Rudolf Rigler2, and Hans Jörnvall2
1 Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm; and 2 Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden

It states that The C-peptide of proinsulin is important for the biosynthesis of insulin......"Data also indicate that C-peptide administration is accompanied by augmented blood flow in skeletal muscle and skin, diminished glomerular hyperfiltration, reduced urinary albumin excretion, and improved nerve function, all in patients with type 1 diabetes who lack C-peptide, but not in healthy subjects. The possibility exists that C-peptide replacement, together with insulin administration, may prevent the development or retard the progression of long-term complications in type 1 diabetes. Recently, new data have been presented demonstrating specific binding of C-peptide to cell surfaces in a manner that suggests the presence of G protein-coupled membrane receptors. C-peptide may thereby stimulate specific intracellular processes, influencing renal and nerve function in C-peptide-deficient type 1 diabetes patients".
"There is now evidence to indicate that replacement of C-peptide in type 1 diabetes is accompanied by improved renal function, as evidenced by correction of glomerular hyperfiltration (27, 31, 50) and diminished urinary albumin excretion (25, 27), and amelioration of nerve dysfunction (25, 26). C-peptide replacement together with insulin administration, a therapy possibly closer to nature's own way, may thus be beneficial in type 1 diabetes patients".
As all of us know(or will know) T1DM related complications are horrible and severe affecting major body organs as well as the Retina. Since C-peptide has been already shown that there is a binding to cellular receptor sites required of ATP activity(Energy) and since with the destruction of those cells that produce Insulin, there comes a destruction in the availability of Amylin and C-Peptide. The logical course would then be to provide:
1. Insulin
2. Amylin
3. C-Peptide
The first two(Insulin and Symlin are already available)
My question is why has C-peptide not been made available considering the damage that takes place to our bodies 24/7 as a result of having Diabetes. Yes, high blood sugars can cause many of these problems, but the Longevity of the Disease and its Nature is a contributing factor as well.
The research on C-Peptide is vast going back to the 1980's at least.

One of the best papers to talk about the Vital Need for the Restoration of C-Peptide in T1DM has been written and presented by Zachary T. Bloomgarden, MD, a well-known Diabetologist/Researcher here in NYC.
The article can be found in Diabetes Care 27:1506-1514, 2004 called Diabetes Complications. "C-peptide is stored with insulin in ß-cell granules, and the two are secreted in equimolecular amounts. Pancreatic or islet cell transplantation with restoration of
endogenous C-peptide leads to amelioration and, in some experimental settings, to reversal of neuropathy and nephropathy".
In addition, C-Peptide has been found to prevent/delay Retinopathy which along with Renal, Coronary, Vascular, Autonomic/Peripheral Neuropathies are very common in T1DM, more as a result of the Nature of the Disease, but of-course can be exacerbated by Hyperglycemia.

Make your feelings known to those organizations that supposedly advocate on our behalf and not theirs(although that is questionable) such as :
JDRF
American Diabetes Association
Discuss this information with your Physician and other Health-care providers. Because they wear white lab coats, does not necessarily mean that they are "up-to-date" and aware of all beneficial things related to Diabetes.
It is YOUR body.........do everything possible to give it Life.

10 comments:

Johnboy said...

Great information. I think that C-Peptide is one dimension that has not really been covered to my knowlege by my endo practice.

Question for you. I know that amylin can be replaced synthetically now, but can the same be said of C-Peptide?

What do we know about this?

Thanks,
Johnboy

Scott said...

Researchers back in the 1970's began asking if patients with type 1 diabetes might be suffering from a lack of C-peptide, but a handful of tiny trials suggested that C-Peptide did nothing. For example, in 1993, Julio Santiago, M.D., professor of medicine and pediatrics at the Washington University School of Medicine injected human patients with type 1 diabetes with low doses of C-Peptide -- just enough to match normal levels -- but saw no effects. His conclusion was that the protein was merely a byproduct of insulin production and served no physiological purpose. But some researchers questioned whether this approach may have overlooked the fact that patients had been without C-Peptide for many years, and it was Lilly's own research done at Washington University in 1997 that changed that school of thought.

My question is why haven't they done anything with it?

BetterCell said...

Hi Johnboy and Scott......
To answer some of the questions posed related to C-Peptide.
As we all know, Amylin has been replaced synthetically with Symalin. Why this has been made available is $$$$ to be made, That's OK, if a drug is useful. The money to be made is to be found in the T1DM and IRD(aka Type 2 Diabetes) communities. The main effect of Symalin is to slow down the digestive/absorption process of food so that both satiety and the effects of exogenous insulin producing better bs numbers would be achieved. However if a person with Diabetes has Gastroparesis which is a very common Complication of the Disease then the effects of the slowing down of digestion has already taken place. BTW, it is contraindicated to use Symalin if a person has Gastroparesis.
So the Market exists for this drug from a $$ point of view in both IRD and T1DM which is why there was a rush to get this made available.

As far as C-Peptide is concerned and as you had already mentioned Scott, when the Research was initially done, it did not show anything spectacular. However, this conclusion might have resulted from a faulty Design Study, not enough Subjects and Unclear Goals, and too short of a Time Period.
The Sweden Research Study and the Bloomgarden Paper contradicts the earlier reports of C-Peptide not having any useful purpose, in fact it shows the total opposite. THere is also a huge Bibliography available with both these repots which I have mentioned as to source. It would be very much worth your time for you to take a look at it.
Scott, Allie Beatty did call Lilly and they gave her a run-around regarding C-Peptide. They have as you pointed out, an extensive amount of Reports on the use of C-Peptide. My feeling from communicating with Allie is that it is a money issue as to why this necessary and important Peptide is not available for us(T1DM) to use.
It does not even have to be put in the same vial as Humalog or Novolog in order to make it easier for FDA approval. It can be used as a separate injection as is Symalin.
Yes Johnboy, C-Peptide can be manufactured synthetically as well.
People with T1DM have to become more pro-active regarding their Disease, This sometimes and often means doing the leg work and spending the Time in order to make your Lives better.

Minnesota Nice said...

Why does this seem way too simple?

It is so easy to turn the "legwork" over to someone else --but you are right, Barry, making our lives better means leaving no stone unturned.

Thanks for all this info.

BetterCell said...

Hi Kathy......There are many people with T1DM who seem preoccupies with bs numbers, the shape and color of their Pump, their up-coming engagement, marriage, pregnancy, their spouses, or boy-friend, girlfriend, their Depression(Understandable because of all the Stress associated with Diabetes). But while all this is going on, the Things(Complications) that are occurring within YOUR body because of this Disease does not stop or care about any of the above. It has its own purpose and intent., like Worker-Bees.
If there is a way to stop. slow down, reverse some if not all the Complications that take place, than that is what should have priority. The way is with C-Peptide administration.

>^..^ said...

wish i could get symlin. i might ask my doc about it but i don't know if they use it in enland.

i don't know why u can't see the pics on my blog, i can ?!

the kittens are getting better now. i got all my other cats at 8weeks old.

BetterCell said...

8 weeks old is too young to have kittens taken from their mom. Three months would be better.

>^..^ said...

yeah 3 months is probably better now. the breeders usually don't let them go until 13 weeks but hey hindsight is a wonderful thing. though doubt being with mum wouldn't have helped their eyes.

they went to the vet again today she's pleased with them.

i don't think we have a prob with cat food in england but will check out that website.

Anonymous said...

I've been following c-peptide research for several years. The research has looked very promising but the medical establishment has been largely ignoring it. Ever since insulin treatment was first introduced Drs. have been assuming that C-Peptide (created at the same time as insulin and as part of the insulin creation process) was just a "throw-away" substance. Surprise! The body doesn't make "throw-away" substances. When I ask researchers about it they say that it has to be proved that it's useful. I say, if it's part of what the body naturally produces in reaction to the presence of glucose, they should have to prove why it's NOT important. These are the same yahoos who said that formula was better than breast milk, that the appendix had no purpose (SURPRISE THEY JUST FOUND OUT IT DOES), and that margarine (jammed full of trans-fats) was healthier than butter. A properly functioning body generally doesn't make mistakes and we have to assume if it creates a substance it does so for a reason. I hope many of you will contact scientific journals, the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation, and anyone else you can think of to encourage them to fast-track research on supplementing with C-Peptide. The research to date shows it can have significant impact on preventing or reversing diabetic complications -- an absolutely critical issue for millions of Type 1 diabetics.

BetterCell said...

Thank you for what you had to say Anonymous.
I am in total agreement with how you feel about the importance of C-peptide in its possible use as a tool in the Management/Prevention of Complications which are linked to the Disease process and has nothing to do with Blood Glucose Numbers other than expediting the Complication if there exists uncontrolled Numbers in either direction.
What I respect about you Anonymous, is that you are a "Free Thinker" who is not afraid to seek truths in Medicine. You so ably pointed out the mistakes that the "Men/Women In White" made when they said that the Appendix was a vestigial organ. I will add that the same was said about the Tonsils, till later it was realized that it served a "protective purpose" against Throat and URT Infections.
What it all comes down to, is that you basically have to allow yourself the opportunity to have un-restricted access to medical data and ask questions as well as allow yourself to think.
I am glad that you are doing all the above and we would be in a better state of Health regarding Diabetes and other Diseases if more people did the same.
Make sure that you see the video, "Lorenzo's Oil" which describes a lot of this same problem that we now face.
BetterCell

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I do not give up my Autonomy,especially to the Medical Profession. Passionate, Creative, Able to see Beauty within Simplicity, I Am Not A Diabetic, rather I have Diabetes (there is a big difference between the two on many levels).Type 1 Diabetes since 5 years of age. Belief in G-D